Bite the Bytes, WarpScript bitwise operators review

Bite the Bytes, WarpScript bitwise operators review

Sometimes, you need to process raw payloads. Extract a bit from an array of bytes. Build a byte array. If you play with Warp 10 MQTT plugin (now available on WarpFleet), you have to manipulate the payload you build on your IoT device.

Here is a useful cheat-sheet for bit and bytes manipulation in WarpScript.


Most conversions from and to LONG or BYTES (bytes array) type exists. We will take an 8 bytes CAN frame as example payload. It contains two booleans, an integer, and a float:


This could be described in a C struct, using bit fields:

    struct {
        unsigned int right_door_opened: 1;
        unsigned int left_door_opened: 1;
        char: 0; //padding
        int batteryVoltage: 24;
        float batteryCurrent;

Decode payloads

  payload.right_door_opened = 1;
  payload.left_door_opened = 0;
  payload.batteryVoltage = 351;
  payload.batteryCurrent = -140.424;

The encoded frame could be represented as a long with value -4392016192336732415, or c30c6c8b00015f01 in hexadecimal. In WarpScript, you could decode everything in a few lines:

'c30c6c8b00015f01' HEX-> 'payload' STORE // payload is a byte array 'right door=' $payload BYTESTOBITS 56 BITGET // right_door boolean TOSTRING + 'battery voltage=' $payload 4 3 SUBSTRING TOLONG // extract battery voltage TOSTRING + 'battery current=' $payload 0 4 SUBSTRING TOLONG FLOATBITS-> // extract battery current TOSTRING +
Extract a byte array from a byte arraySUBSTRING
Read a byte from a byte array, returns a longGET
Convert a byte array to a longTOLONG
Convert a byte array to a floatTOLONG FLOATBITS->
Convert a byte array to a doubleTOLONG DOUBLEBITS->
Convert a byte array to a string'UTF-8' BYTES->
Read a bit from a byte array, returns a booleanBYTESTOBITS 56 BITGET
Reverse a byte array endiannessREVERSE

Of course, if you define the same C struct on another CPU, you might have to reverse endianness somewhere!

Encode payloads

Here is the code to build the byte array with the same content as the previous example:

-140.424 ->FLOATBITS 4 ->LONGBYTES // 4 bytes from battery current 351 3 ->LONGBYTES // 3 bytes from the battery voltage + // contatenate the byte arrays 1 1 ->LONGBYTES // 1 byte containing "1" (right door opened) + // contatenate the byte arrays ->HEX // convert the byte array to a string representation

Again, convert what you need to long, then to byte arrays, and use + to concatenate byte arrays. For booleans, use bitwise shift << and binary mask | and & to build long.

Convert a long to a byte array, from 1 to 8 bytes3 ->LONGBYTES
Concatenate byte arrays together+
Convert a float to a byte array->FLOATBITS 4 ->LONGBYTES
Convert a double to a byte array->DOUBLEBITS 8 ->LONGBYTES
Reverse a byte array endiannessREVERSE


WarpScript also includes functions to represent byte array as strings. These functions are useful for debugging, checking endianness problems, and so on.

-4392016192336732415 8 ->LONGBYTES 'payload' STORE $payload ->HEX $payload 7 1 SUBSTRING ->BIN // display the byte with door booleans -140.424 ->FLOATBITS 4 ->LONGBYTES ->HEX // display a float representation in hexadecimal
Display byte array in hexadecimal->HEX
Display byte array in binary->BIN
Display byte array in base64->B64
Decode a byte array'UTF-8' BYTES->


Like many languages, WarpScript allows to build or decode any kind of binary payload. If you want to check all available type conversions, read this tutorial!